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Table 3 Association of body mass index (BMI) z-score and obesity with motor skills

From: Obesity and motor skills among 4 to 6-year-old children in the united states: nationally-representative surveys

  Boys Girls
  BMI z-score Obesity BMI z-score Obesity
4 years of age     
Gross motor skill     
Balance at least 10 sec.     
Right foot -0.07 0.84 -0.05 0.92
Left foot -0.04 0.94 -0.05 0.77**
Hop 5 times     
Right foot -0.06 0.83** -0.03 0.91
Left foot -0.07* 0.80** -0.08 0.83**
Jump distance (inches) -0.40 -1.04 -0.46* -1.69**
Skip at least 8 steps -0.01 0.84 0.04 1.03
Walk backwards 6 steps on line -0.01 0.91 -0.05 0.93
Bean bag catch (at least 5 caught) 0.03 1.14 0.08* 1.32**
Fine motor skill     
Blocks (gate & tower)     
Passed one 0.002 1.00 0.04 1.03
Full passed -0.003 0.99 0.04 0.94
Copy form -0.02 -0.10 -0.02 0.00
5-6 years of age     
Gross motor skill     
Balance at least 10 sec.     
Right foot -0.02 0.94 -0.01 1.02
Left foot 0.05 0.99 -0.09* 0.98
Hop 5 times     
Right foot -0.12* 0.92* -0.08 0.96
Left foot -0.05 0.89** -0.15** 0.93*
Jump distance (inches) -0.15 -1.07 -0.47* -1.58**
Skip at least 8 steps 0.07 0.99 -0.04 0.97
Walk backwards 6 steps on line 0.04 0.92 -0.08* 0.91
Bean bag catch (at least 5 caught) 0.07 1.06 -0.01 0.98
Fine motor skill     
Blocks (gate) 0.06 0.97 0.04 1.06
Copy form 0.04 0.05 -0.01 -0.03
  1. Values are regression coefficients for BMI z-score and ratio of probabilities for passing a test in obese children out of normal-weight children. All analyses are adjusted for covariates and take into account weights and sampling design. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01