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Table 3 Bivariate analysis showing risk factors associated with the occurrence of congenital anomalies

From: Prevalence, risk factors and outcome of congenital anomalies among neonatal admissions in OGBOMOSO, Nigeria

Characteristic Odds ratio 95% confidence interval p value
Sex
 Female (Ref)
 Male 0.84 0.51–1.37 0.476
Birth weight (kg)
 <1.5 0.71 0.27–1.85 0.480
 1.5–2.49 1.31 0.74–2.32 0.356
 ≥2.5 (Ref)
Gestational age at birth
 Preterm 1.29 0.64–2.62 0.478
 Term (Ref)
Maternal age (years)
 ≤20 2.69 0.63–11.47 0.181
 21–35 (Ref)    
 >35 1.52 0.52–4.41 0.446
Maternal parity
 1–2 (Ref)    
 3–4 1.13 0.61–2.12 0.692
 ≥5 2.30 0.92–5.80 0.077
Type of gestation
 Singleton (Ref)    
 Multiple 0.65 0.28–1.54 0.326
Antenatal care
 Yes (Ref)    
 No 0.78 0.30–2.00 0.606
Self-medication
 Yes 3.02 0.64–14.33 0.163
 No (Ref)    
Use of herbal preparation
 Yes 4.08 0.44–37.80 0.215
 No (Ref)    
Maternal febrile illness
 Yes 1.26 0.52–3.07 0.615
 No (Ref)    
Folic acid use during first trimester
 Yes (Ref)    
 No 0.54 0.16–1.83 0.324